Kernel Initialization :
1) The kernel initializes hardware as well as kernel data structures.
2) The kernel command line is saved.
3) Hard-drive information is retrieved from the BIOS.
4) The memory size is determined, again through the BIOS.
5) The hardware is prepared to move to protected mode. (Protected mode is the normal memory mode that the system runs in. It allows for the use of All interupts are disabled).
6) The “Protected Mode Enabled” bit is set in the Machine Status Word. This step actually turns on protected mode.
7) The page tables are initialized. These are part of virtual memory support.
8) Paging is enabled by setting the PG bit in control register 0. This turns on virtual memory.
9) Exception handlers are installed. These routines get control when a programming error is detected by the hardware.
10) The timer interrupt is installed.
11) kernel detects the attached devices in the system & loads thier drivers into RAM.
12) mounts root filesystem into read-only memory mode.
13) then initializes the ‘init’ process for further processing
14) init=it is the first process that is started at the boot time.