Development of linux Information & Scripting


Development of Linux :
——————————
1986 Linus (Benedict) Torvalds programmed its own driver for its floppy controller. He learned intensively hardware programming and became better knowledge about his Sinclair computer with Q-DOS. Additionally he provided his own programmer Tools. When 1991 the 386-Intel PC became modern, he got one PC to learn about the programming of 386 CPUs. As operating system the Unix derivate MINIX was used, he has know Unix already since 1990 from its university. Minix was developed by Andrew Tanenbaum as learning system and was particularly used at universities. The written book from A. Tanenbaum “Operating Systems: Design and Implementation” is about operating system concepts and Minix, which became the favourite book from Torvalds. The source code of Minix is open source, any modifications are bound to the license conditions.

Because he did not find the provided terminal emulator program in Minix acceptable, he began his project to code his own and better terminal emulator with more functions on hardware level. In addition he programmed his own drivers for the data medium access and the file system and others in assembler. With these functions the software becames the ability to upload and download from the Internet. In the line of the development terminal program got more and more functions so he made the decision to enhance it to a operating system. Its operating system was derivated from concepts of Minix but completely written from scratch beginning at the Kernel. After long programming evenings it was so far. On 17th September 1991 the operating system Freax version 0.01 was finished, as development environment was used still the MINIX for 386 CPUs. It contained already the GNU Shell bash and the GNU C-compiler GCC from Richard Stallman, which counts to the standard programs for the meantime named operating system Linux. Because Linux profits particularly from the GNU software pool, it is generally called GNU/Linux.

After approximately 6 months Freax was renamed in Linux. Already on 3th July 1991 he had asked for the POSIX standards in the minix-newsgroup, he presented on 25th August 1991 his project in public and asked for suggestions for further functions and extensions. The source code was made freely accessible by ftp. To communicate with other programmers and interested people he used the Maylinglist “Linux-activists@niksula.hut.fi” and the newsgroup “comp.os.minix” for contact and progress messages. Later its own Maylinglist and forums were created. In the line of the development he received wished postcards from all over the world with thankfully words. The project has got a strong self-dynamic in the InterNet and was maintained by the community. The rights at the brand name Linux was transferred after a legal incident to Linus Torvalds and later distributed on several persons to ensure the further development and to avoid a “takeover by enemys”. The symbol figure “Tux the penguin” was selected because Torvalds was bitten by a penguin in a Finnish zoo. The self-willed animal had impressed him in such a way, which it gave to its operating system this guidance figure. At the beginning Linux doesn`t contain any installation script or graphical installation menu. To make the installation from Linux easier and automated Owen LeBlanc from the Manchester Computing Centre published the MCC Interim release, this was the key for the automated installation of today’s distributions.

File structure (first level) of Linux  :
———————————————-
/ – Root-Directory
/bin – system tools
/boot – kernel, bootmanager
/cdrom – Mount-Point for CD-ROM drives (optional)
/dev – device files
/etc – configuration files
/floppy – Mount-Point for floppy drive(optional)
/home – user directory
/lib – shared Libraries
/mnt – mount Verzeichnis
/opt – additional software, GUI
/proc – system informations
/root – root user directory
/sbin – system programs for root
/tmp – temporary files
/usr – applications for the GUI, source code (kernel)
/var – various files, log files

shell commands :
———————
mount – Mounts a filesystem
umount – Unmounts a filesystem
fdisk – Used to create or delete of partitions on a hard drive
hdparm – Get/set various hard disk geometry parameters
rm – Remove files
ls – List the contents of every subdirectory
dir – List the current directory content
cd – Change the current directory
dd – Bit based disk or data copy
ps – shows active processes
df – Shows the free space of any filesystem
find – Search for a file
mkdir – Make a directory
mv – Move or rename a file
vi – Editor with a command mode and text mode
killall – Kill processes by name
ifconfig – Configure a network interface
netstat – Information about the network connections
mc – File manager with visual shell

Goals :
——–
To create a better MINIX than MINIX (he was dissatisfied with MINIX)
Unix derivated operating system on normal PCs
open source development
programming on this project with developers from around the world
development after the needs of the users

Scripting :
————
A high-level programming language that is interpreted by another program at runtime rather than compiled by the computer’s processor as other programming languages (such as C and C++) are. Scripting languages, which can be embedded within HTML, commonly are used to add functionality to a Web page, such as different menu styles or graphic displays or to serve dynamic advertisements. These types of languages are client-side scripting languages, affecting the data that the end user sees in a browser window. Other scripting languages are server-side scripting languages that manipulate the data, usually in a database, on the server.

Shell Scripting :
——————–
A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix shell, a command line interpreter. The various dialects of shell scripts are considered to be scripting languages. Typical operations performed by shell scripts include file manipulation, program execution, and printing text.

CentOS Information


CentOS
CentOS Version checkCentOS Linux is a Linux distribution derived from the Red Hat Enterprise Linux. Because it is free, CentOS Linux is widely popular with Linux users, web hosts and small businesses. However, as with most free things, you do give up something. In this case, there is no direct CentOS support services offered by the CentOS team. So before you select CentOS for your next project, there are a few things you should know about using CentOS Linux.

The CentOS Linux distribution is a stable, predictable, manageable and reproducible platform derived from the sources of Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL). We are now looking to expand on that by creating the resources needed by other communities to come together and be able to build on the CentOS Linux platform. And today we start the process by delivering a clear governance model, increased transparency and access. In the coming weeks we aim to publish our own roadmap that includes variants of the core CentOS Linux.

CentOS6-logo

CentOS
Community enterprise Operating System

Checking CentOS Version
cat /etc/centos-release
(or)
lsb_release -a

System Requirements
CentOS fully supports only the x86-64 architecture
SPARC, beta support available in CentOS 4
Alpha, support available in CentOS 4
IBM Mainframe (eServer zSeries and S/390), not supported since CentOS 5
IA-64 (Intel Itanium architecture), supported in CentOS 3 and 4
IA-32 without Physical Address Extension (PAE), not supported since CentOS 6
IA-32 in all variants, not supported since CentOS 7

CentOS Versions Screenshotfrom2015-12-29222444

CentOS 3
CentOS 4
CentOS 5
CentOS 6
CentOS 7

Linux OS & Distributions


Linux :
——–

linux_os_operating_system_black_white_text_34212_3840x2160
Linux is, in simplest terms, an operating system. It is the software on a computer that enables applications and the computer operator to access the devices on the computer to perform desired functions. The operating system (OS) relays instructions from an application to, for instance, the computer’s processor. The processor performs the instructed task, then sends the results back to the application via the operating system.

Explained in these terms, Linux is very similar to other operating systems, such as Windows and OS X.

As an open operating system, Linux is developed collaboratively, meaning no one company is solely responsible for its development or ongoing support. Companies participating in the Linux economy share research and development costs with their partners and competitors. This spreading of development burden amongst individuals and companies has resulted in a large and efficient ecosystem and unheralded software innovation.

linux_architecture1

Linux Features :
———————
1) Mutiuser
2) Multitasking
3) Graphical User Interface
4) Hardware Support
5) Networking Connectivity
6) Networking Servers
7) Application Support
8) Root User
9) Cron
10) Centralized Application Installation
11) Log Files
12) Portability
13) Open Source
14) Shell
15) Security
16) File System

linux_os

Components of Linux OS :
————————————
1) Kernal
2) System Library
3) System Utility

List of Operating Systems :
————————————

linux_os_operating_system_black_white_text_34212_3840x2160.jpg
Operating systems (592)

2K
86-DOS
A/UX
Acados
ACP (Airline Control Program)
AdaOS
ADMIRAL
Adrenaline
aerolitheOS
Aimos
AIOS
AIX
AIX/370
AIX/ESA
Aleris Operating System
Allegro
AllianceOS
Alpha OS
Alto OS
Amiga OS
Amoeba
Amstrad
AMX RTOS
AngelOS
Antarctica
AOS/VS
Aperios
Apollo Domain/OS
ApolloOS
Apostle
Archimedes OS
AROS
ARTOS
Asbestos
Athena
AtheOS
AtomsNet
Atomthreads
AuroraOS
B-Free
Bada
BAL
Banyan VINES
Basic Executive System
BeIA
BeOS
Beowulf
BKY
BlueEyedOS
BOS
BOS1810
BoxOS
BPMK
bpmk
BRiX
BS600
BS2000
BSDi
BugOS
Calmira
CCP (Computer Control Program)
CDOS
Cefarix
C Executive
Chaos
Chimera
Chippewa OS
Choices
Chorus
Cinder OS
Cisco IOS
Clicker32
CMW+ (SCO)
COBRA
Coherent
CONSENSYS
ConvexOS
Cos
Cosy
Counterpoise
CP/K
CP/M
CP/NET
CP/Z
CPF (Control Program Facility)
Cromix
Cronus
CSOC
CTOS
CTSS
CX/SX
Cygnus
DAC
Darwin
Data General
DC/OSx
DCP
Degenerate OS
Delitalk
DELL UNIX
Deming OS
DEMOS
DesktopBSD
DESKWORK
DG/UX
DIGITAL UNIX
dingOS
DK/DOS
DLD
DNIX
Domain OS
DOS
DOS2
DOS 50
Dosket
dr’ex
DR-DOS
Drops
Drywell OS
DS-OS
DTOS
DVIX
DYNIX Unix (Sequent)
ECL-3211
eComStation
eCos
EduOS
EGOS
ekkoBSD
Elate
ELKS
Elysium
EOS
EP/IX
EPOC
ERaMS
ERIKA
EROS
ESER
ESIX
ESKO
Eumel
EuNIX
Exopc
ExOS
Express
Famos
FDOS
Fiasco
Flamethrower
FlashOS
FlexOS
FLP-80 DOS
Flux
Flux-Fluke-Flask
FMS
Forth
FreeBSD
FreeDOS
FreeDOWS
FreeVMS
Frenzy
FullPliant
FunatixOS
FxOS
GazOS
GCOS
GECOS
GeekOS
Gemini Nucleus
Genera
GEORGE
GEOS
GM OS
GNU Hurd
GNUstep
Go
Goah
Gould OS
Grasshopper
GUIDE
HA-MSP
Hactar
Harmony
Haïku
Helios
HES
Hive
HOPE
HP-87 OS
HP-UX
HT-11
Hurd
Hurricane
HydrixOS
i5/OS
IBM PC-DOS
IBSYS
Icaros Desktop
ICL Unix
Immunix
Inferno
INMOS
INTEGRITY RTOS
Iridium OS
IRIX
iRMX
IRTS
ISC (Interactive)
ISIS
ISSL
ITRON
ITS
JAMB
JavaOS
Jbed
JeniOS
Jeo-OS
Jibbed
JOS
JTMOS
JUNOS
JxOS
KAOS
Katix
Kea
Kerberos
KeyKOS
KolibriOS
KOS
KRONOS
KROS
KRUD
Kylin
L4
L13Plus
LainOS
LAN Manager
LDOS
LegOS
leJOS
Linux
Lisa OS
LTSS
LynxOS
Mach
Mac OS 8
Mac OS 9
Mac OS X
MANOS
MaRTE OS
Maruti
Masix
Master
Maverick OS
MBOS
MCP (Master Control Program)
MDOS
MenuetOS
Merlin
Micriµm
MICRODOS
MicroVMS
MikeOS
Minima
Minix
Minux
Miranda
Miray µnOS
MITE 80/IOS
MK++
ML
ModulOS
Monitor
MOPS
MorphOS
MOS
MOSIX
MPE/iX
MPE OS
MRT1700
MS-DOS
MSOS
MT809
Multics
Mungi
MUTOS
muVinix
MVS
Möbius
NachOS
NCR Unix
NEC DOS
NECUX
Nemesis
NeOS
NetBSD
Netware
NewDeal
NEWDOS
NewOS
NEWS-OS
Newton OS
NexentaOS
NeXTStep
NextworksOS
Nexus
Nimbus
Node OS
NOS
NOS/BE
NOS/VE
Nova
Novell DOS
NS/GDOS
NSK
NTDIOS
Nucleus
Oaesis
Oasis
Oberon
Objex
Odin
Omega 4
OnCore
On Time RTOS-32
Opal
OpenBeOS
OpenBSD
OpenDarwin
OpenRavenscar
OpenServer
OpenSolaris
OpenVision
OpenVMS
OppcOS
OS-2
OS-9
OS-C
OS/2
OS/2 Warp
OS/9
OS/360
OS/390
OS/400
OS/ES
OS/M
OS4
osCAN
OSE
OSF/1
Osx
OZONE
PAKOS
Palm OS
PAPL
Paramecium
ParixOS
Paros
PaulOS
P BASIC
PC-BSD
PC-DOS
PC-MOS/386
PC/M-System
PDOS
PEACE
Pebble
Pegasos
PETROS
Phantom OS
Phos
PIOS
PizziOS
Plan 9
Plex86
PM_SZ_OS
PocketPC 2003
PowerMAX
PowerOS
PowerSX
PowerUX
ProDOS
Prologue
Proolix
ProOSEK
PSOS
pSOSystem
PSU
PTS DOS
PublicOS
PURE
QDOS
QNX
Quadros
RadiOS
RBASIC
RCOS
RCOSjava
RDOS
ReactOS
REAL-32
Realogy Real Time Architekt
REBOL-IOS
ReWin
REX-80/86
REXX/OS
RHODOS
RISC OS
RMOS
RMS 68k
Roadrunner
ROME
Rome
RSTS/E
RSX-11
RT-11
RTEL
RTEMS
RT Mach NTT
rtmk
RTMX
RTOS-32
RTOS-UH
RTS-80
RTX
RTXDOS
RxDOS
S.Ha.R.K
Sanos
SCO OpenServer
SCOPE
ScorchOS
ScottsNewOS
Scout
SCP
SCP (System Control Program)
SCP-IBE
Self-R
SeOS
Sequent
SEVMS VAX
Shark
SharpOS
ShawnOS
SIBO
Sinclair
Sinix
SINTRAN III
SkyOS
Slikware
sMultiTA
SOBS
Solaris
Solar_OS
Solbourne UNIX
SOS
SP6800
Spice
Spice/MT
SPIN
Spinix
SPOX
Spring
Squeak
SSP (System Support Program)
STAR-OS
STARCOS
Starplex II OS
Sting
StreamOS
Subsump
SUMO
SunMOS
SunOS
SunriseOS
SuperDOS
SVM
SVR
Syllable
Symbian OS
SymbOS
Symobi
Symphony OS
Synapse
System 6 (Mac OS)
System 7 (Mac OS)
System V Release
Tabos
TABOS
TalOS
TAOS
TENEX
THE
Thix
ThreadX
ThrillOS
TI-99 4A
TinyOS
TIS APL
TNIX
TOPS-10
TOPS-20
Topsy
Tornado
Torsion
TOS
TPF (Transaction Processing Facility)
TriangleOS
Tripos
TRON
TRS-DOS
Tru64 UNIX
TSX-32
TUD:OS
TUNES
TurboDOS
UberOS
UCSD-p
UDOS
Ultrix
UMDS
UMN
UNI/OS
Unicos
UNICOS/lc
Uni FLEX
Unisys U5000
Unix System
UnixWare
Unununium
USIX
UTS
UXP/V
V2 OS
Vapour
VERSAdos
VisiOn
Visopsys
Visual Network OS
VM/ESA
VM/VSE
VME
VMS
VRTX/8002
VRTX/OS
VSE
VSOS
VSTa
VTOS
VxWorks
WEGA
WildMagnolia
Windows 7
Windows 8
Windows 95
Windows 98
Windows 98 SE
Windows 2000
Windows Automotive
Windows CE
Windows ME
Windows NT
Windows Server 2003
Windows Server 2003 R2
Windows Server 2008
Windows Server 2008 R2
Windows Vista
Windows XP
WinMac
WIZRD
x-kernel
XAOS
XDOS
Xenix
Xinu
xMach
XOS
XTS
Yamit
Yaxic
Yoctix
z-VM
z/OS
Z9001-OS
ZealOS
Zeta
Zeus Zilog
zeVenOS
ZMOS
ZotOS
ZRTS 8000

List of Linux distributions :
————————————

linux_os_operating_system_black_white_text_34212_3840x2160

Linux distributions (611)

oppix
64 Studio
Absolute Linux
AbulÉdu
Adamantix
ADIOS
Adler Linux
Admelix
Admiral Linux
AGNULA
Alcolix
Alinex
aLinux
AliXe
ALT Linux
amaroK Live
Amber
andLinux
Android
Ankur
Annvix
AnNyung
Anonym.OS
ANTEMIUM
antiX
APODIO
aquamorph
Arabian
ArcheOS
Archie
Arch Linux
Ark Linux
Armed Linux
ArtistX
Arudius
AsianLinux
Asianux
ASork
ASP Linux
Astaro
AsteriskNOW
Athene
ATMission
Atomix
Augustux
Aurora
Aurox
AUSTRUMI
B2D
BabelDisc
BackTrack
Baltix
Bayanihan
BearOps Linux
BeatrIX Linux
Beehive Linux
BeleniX
Bent Linux
Berry
Berry Linux
BestLinux
BIG LINUX
BinToo
BioBrew
Bioknoppix
Black Cat Linux
blackPanther
BLAG
Blin
Blin Linux
Bloody Stupid
Blue Cat Linux
BlueLinux
Bluewall
Bonzai Linux
Bootable Cluster CD
Buffalo
BugnuX
BU Linux
Burapha
ByzantineOS
Caixa Mágica
Caldera Linux
cAos
Carl.OS
Catix
CCux
CDlinux
cdlinux.pl
Censornet
CentOS
Chakra
Chrome OS
cl33n
ClarkConnect
ClearOS
cLIeNUX
Clonezilla Live
Clusterix
clusterKNOPPIX
Co-Create
CobaltOS
College
Commodore OS Vision
Condorux
Conectiva Linux
Cool Linux CD
CoreBiz
Coreboot
Corel Linux
Coyote
Craftworks Linux
CrunchBang
CrunchEee
CRUX
Càtix
Damn Small Linux
Damn Vulnerable Linux
Danix
DARKSTAR
Debian GNU/Linux
Debris Linux
Deep-Water
Deft Linux
DeLi
Delix Linux
Denix
Devil
Dizinha
DLD
DNALinux
Draco Linux
Dragon Linux
Dragora
DRBL live
Dreamlinux
Dualix
Dynabolic
dyne:bolic
Dzongkha
E/OS LX Desktop
Eadem
Eagle
eAR OS
easyLinux
Easy Peasy
easys
Edubuntu
eduKnoppix
EduLinux
Ehad
Eisfair
Elbuntu
ELE
eLearnix
ELF
Elfstone Linux
Elive
ELP
ELX
Embedix
Endian
EnGarde
ERPOSS
ESware
Euronode
EvilEntity Linux
Evinux
EzPlanet One
FAMELIX
FaunOS
Feather
Featherweight
Fedora
Fermi
ffsearch-LiveCD
Finnix
Fiubbix
Flash
FlightLinux
Flonix
Fluxbuntu
FluxFlux-Eee
Foresight
FoRK
Formilux
FoX Desktop
Freduc
free-EOS
Freedows
Freeduc
FreeNAS
Freepia
FreeSBIE
Freespire
FreevoLive
Freezy
Frugalware
FTOSX
GeeXboX
Gelecek
GenieOS
Gentoo
Gentoox
GEOLivre
Gibraltar
Ging
Giotto
Glendix
gNewSense
GNIX
Gnoppix
GNUbie Linux
gnuLinEx
GNUstep
GoblinX
GoboLinux
GoodGoat Linux
Google Chrome OS
gOS (Google OS)
GParted
Grafpup
Granular Linux
grml
Guadalinex
GuLIC-BSD
H3Knix
Haansoft
Hakin9
Halloween Linux
Hancom
Hedinux
Helix
Heretix
Hikarunix
Hiweed
Holon
HOLON Linux
Honeywall
How-Tux
Hubworx
iBox
ICE Linux
Icepack Linux
IDMS
Igelle
Ignalum
Impi
Independence
IndLinux
IPCop
JBLinux
Jolicloud
JoLinux
Joli OS
Julex
Jurix Linux
Juxlala
K-DEMar
K12LTSP
Kaboot
Kaella
Kaladix Linux
Kalango
KANOTIX
Karamad
KateOS
Kinneret
Kiwi Linux
Klax
Klikit-Linux
K Linux
kmLinux
knopILS
Knoppel
Knopperdisk
Knoppix
Knoppix 64
KnoppiXMAME
KnoppMyth
KnoSciences
Komodo
Kongoni
Kororaa
KRUD
Kubuntu
Kuki Linux
Kurumin
Kwort
L.A.S.
Leetnux
Lerntux
LFS
LG3D
LibraNet Linux
LIIS
Lin-X
Linare
LindowsOS
Lineox
LinEspa
LinnexOS
Linpus
Linspire
Linux+ Live
Linux-EduCD
Linux4One
Linux Antarctica
Linux by LibraNet
LinuxConsole
Linux DA OS
LinuxMCE
Linux Mint
LINUXO
LinuxOne
LinuxPPC
LinuxTLE
Linux XP
Litrix
LiveCD Router
LiveKiosk
LiVux
LLGP
LliureX
LNX-BBC
Loco
Lormalinux
l OS
LST Linux
LTSP
LUC3M
Luit
Lunar
LuteLinux
LXDEbian
Lycoris Desktop/LX
m0n0wall
Magic
Mandrake
Mandriva
Mangaka
MAX
MaxOS
Mayix
MCNLive
Mediainlinux
Media Lab
MeeGo
MEPIS
MiniKazit
Minislack
Miracle
MirOS
MkLinux
Moblin
Mockup
MoLinux
Momonga
Monoppix
Monte Vista Linux
MoonOS
Morphix
MostlyLinux
MoviX
MSC
Mulimidix
muLinux
Multi Distro
Muriqui
MURIX
Musix
Mutagenix
Myah OS
myLinux
Nasgaïa
Nature’s
Navyn OS
NepaLinux
NetMAX DeskTOP
NetSecL
Netstation Linux
Netwosix
Nexenta
Niigata
NimbleX
Nitix
NoMad Linux
Nonux
Nova
NST
nUbuntu
Nuclinux
NuxOne
O-Net
Ocularis
Ola Dom
Omega
Omoikane
Onebase Linux
OpenArtist
OpenLab
OpenLinux
OpenLX
OpenMamba
OpenNA
Open ProgeX
Openwall
Operator
Oralux
Overclockix
P!tux
PAIPIX
paldo
ParallelKnoppix
Pardus
Parsix
Parsix GNU/Linux
PC/OS
PCLinuxOS
Peanut Linux
PelicanHPC
Penguin Sleuth
Pentoo
Pequelin
pfSense
Phaeronix
Phantomix
Phat Linux
PHLAK
Pie Box
Pilot
Pingo
Pingwinek
Pioneer Linux
Plamo
PLD
PLoP Linux
Pocket Linux
Poseidon
POSTed
Power Desktop
Pozix Linux
pQui
Privatix
Progeny
ProTech
PUD
Puppy
Puredyne
QiLinux
Qimo
Qplus
Quantian
Raidiator
Red Flag
Red Hat
RedHawk Linux
Redmond Linux
redWall Firewall
Repairlix
RIP
ROCK
Rock Linux
Rocks Cluster
ROOT
ROSLIMS
rPath
RR4 Linux
RTLinux
Rubix
Sabayon
Sabily
Salgix
Salvare
SAM
Samhain Linux
Santa Fe
Sauver
SaxenOS
SCI.Linux
Scientific
SCO Linux
ScrudgeWare
Securepoint
Sentry Firewall
Shift Linux
Shinux
SimplyMEPIS
Skolelinux
Slack/390
Slackintosh
Slackware
Slamd64
SLAMPP
slax
SliTaz GNU/Linux
SLS
SLYNUX
SME Server
SmoothWall
SnapGear Embedded Linux
SNAPPIX
Snøfrix
SoL (Server optimized Linux)
Sorcerer
SOT Linux
Source Mage
Spectra Linux
SphinxOS
Splack
Splashtop
SprezzOS
Stampede
StartCom
STD
Stormix
StreamBOX
StressLinux
STUX
STX
Sugar On A Stick
SuliX
Sun Linux
Sun Wah
SuperGamer
SuSE
Symphony OS
SystemRescue
T2
TA-Linux
Tablix
Tao Live
Taprobane
TechLinux
Thinstation
Tilix
Tinfoil Hat Linux
Titan LEV
Tizen
tomsrtbt
Tomukas
Toophpix
Topologilinux
Toutou
Trinity
Trisquel GNU/Linux
Trixbox
Troppix
Trustix
Trustverse
Truva
TumiX
TupiServer
Tuquito
Turbolinux
Turkix
Ubuntu
UbuntuME
Ubuntu Netbook Remix
Ubuntu Privacy Remix
uClinux
Ufficio Zero
UHU-Linux
uL
Ulteo
Ultima
Underground
Unifix Linux
uOS
Urli OS
UserLinux
UTILEX
Ututo
Vector
Vidalinux
VideoLinux
Vine
VLOS
VNLinux
Voltalinux
WarLinux
Wazobia
Webfish Linux
WHAX
White Box
Whitix
WIENUX
WinLinux 2001
WinSlack
Wolvix
WOMP!
X-evian
X/OS
Xandros
Xarnoppix
Xenoppix
Xfld
Ximian Desktop
xPud
Xteam
XtreemOS
Xubuntu
Yellow Dog
YES
Yggdrasil Linux
Ylmf OS
Yoper
Zebuntu
Zenwalk
Zeroshell
ZoneCD

Ubuntu 15.04 (Vivid Vervet) Installation


Ubuntu 15.04 (Vivid Vervet)
On 20 October 2014 Shuttleworth announced that Ubuntu 15.04 would be named Vivid Vervet. It was released on 23 April 2015.This was the 22nd Ubuntu release.

Ubuntu 15.04 used systemd instead of Upstart by default.This release also featured locally integrated menus by default, replacing the previous default global menus.

Ubuntu 15.04 is not an exciting release, but that it’s only a surface impression. The truth is that it’s an important upgrade because some very important changes have been made, including the adoption of systemd. Users will notice that not too many visual changes have been implemented in Ubuntu 15.04, but that was to be expected.

Features 
Linux Kernel 3.19.3
Compiz 0.9.12
LibreOffice 4.4
Firefox 37
Thunderbird 31.6
Shotwell 0.20.2
Nautilus 3.14.2
Evince 3.14.2
Rhythmbox 3.1
Totem 3.14.1
GNOME Terminal 3.14

System Requirements
AMD64 or EM64T architecture (Athlon64, Opteron, EM64T Xeon,Core 2)
64 Bit Chips
Burned CD/DVD or ISO image
700 MHz processor
Minimum 512 MB of RAM
5 GB Disk Space

64 Bit ISO
old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/15.04/ubuntu-15.04-desktop-amd64.iso (Desktop)
old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/15.04/ubuntu-15.04-server-amd64.iso  (Server)

64 Bit Torrent
old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/15.04/ubuntu-15.04-desktop-amd64.iso.torrent (Desktop)
old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/15.04/ubuntu-15.04-server-amd64.iso.torrent (Server)

32 Bit ISO
old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/15.04/ubuntu-15.04-desktop-i386.iso (Desktop)
old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/15.04/ubuntu-15.04-server-i386.iso  (Server)

32 Bit Torrent
old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/15.04/ubuntu-15.04-desktop-i386.iso.torrent (Desktop)
old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/15.04/ubuntu-15.04-server-i386.iso.torrent  (Server)

Ubuntu 15.04 (Vivid Vervet) Installation
Installation Ubuntu 15.04

110

Choose ubuntu installation

Install-Ubuntu

Preparing ubuntu installation

System-Requirements

Installation type

Installation-Type

Choose your time zone

timezone-during-ubuntu15-installation-

Choose keyboard layout

Ubntu-14.10-KeyBoard

Choose Username & Password

mint_15_10

Installation process

Installation-Progress

Installation is completed

Complete

Ubuntu 14.04.2 LTS (Trusty Tahr) Installation


Ubuntu 14.04.2 LTS (Trusty Tahr)
Mark Shuttleworth announced on 31 October 2011 that by Ubuntu 14.04, Ubuntu would support smartphones, tablets, TVs and smart screens. On 18 October 2013, it was announced that Ubuntu 14.04 would be dubbed “Trusty Tahr”.

This version was released on 17 April 2014, and is the 20th release of Ubuntu. Shuttleworth indicated that the focus in this development cycle would be a release characterized by “performance, refinement, maintainability, technical debt” and encouraged the developers to make “conservative choices”.

Features 
Locally Integrated Menus
Live Window Resizing
Included the Ubuntu 3.13.0-32.57 Linux kernel
Improved DBus mediation
New abstractions for applications running under Unity6)
Support for High-DPI screens
Improved lock screen speed and security
GNOME 3.10
LibreOffice updated to 4.2.3

System Requirements
AMD64 or EM64T architecture (Athlon64, Opteron, EM64T Xeon,Core 2)
64 Bit Chips
Burned CD/DVD or ISO image
700 MHz processor
Minimum 512 MB of RAM
5 GB Disk Space

64 Bit ISO
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/trusty/ubuntu-14.04.2-desktop-amd64.iso (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/trusty/ubuntu-14.04.2-server-amd64.iso  (Server)

64 Bit Torrent
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/14.04.2/ubuntu-14.04.2-desktop-amd64.iso.torrent (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/14.04.2/ubuntu-14.04.2-server-amd64.iso.torrent (Server)

32 Bit ISO
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/trusty/ubuntu-14.04.2-desktop-i386.iso (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/trusty/ubuntu-14.04.2-server-i386.iso  (Server)

32 Bit Torrent
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/14.04.2/ubuntu-14.04.2-desktop-i386.iso.torrent (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/14.04.2/ubuntu-14.04.2-server-i386.iso.torrent (Server)

Ubuntu 14.04.2  (Trusty Tahr) Installation
Installation Ubuntu 14.04.2

welcomescreen

Choosing ubuntu installation

install-ubuntu

Preparing to install

prepare-install-ubuntu

Installation type

something-else-1

Choose your location

timezone-1

Choose keyboard layout selection

keyboard-layout

Choose Username & Password

mint_15_10

Installation Process

installation-started-1

Installation is completed

restart-machine-1

Ubuntu 13.04 (Raring Ringtail) Installation


Ubuntu 13.04 (Raring Ringtail)
On 17 October 2012, Shuttleworth announced that Ubuntu 13.04 would be named Raring Ringtail and said about this release “[In the next six months] we want to have the phone, tablet and TV all lined up. Ubuntu 13.04 was released on schedule on 25 April 2013.

Previously, on 29 October 2012, at Ubuntu Developer Summit Registration there had been a discussion of redesigning Wubi for Ubuntu 13.04.

Features
Better Social Media Integration
New Window Management Options
A New, Social Photo Lens
Improved Sync and Bluetooth Menus
Other Minor Appearance Changes
Better Performance

Requirements
AMD64 or EM64T architecture (Athlon64, Opteron, EM64T Xeon,Core 2).
64 Bit Chips AMD Processor.
700 MHz processor (about Intel Celeron or better)
512 MiB RAM (system memory)
5 GB of hard-drive space (or USB stick, memory card or external drive but see LiveCD for an alternative approach)
VGA capable of 1024×768 screen resolution
Either a CD/DVD drive or a USB port for the installer media

64 Bit ISO
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/raring/ubuntu-13.04-desktop-amd64.iso (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/raring/ubuntu-13.04-server-amd64.iso  (Server)

64 Bit Torrent
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/raring/ubuntu-13.04-desktop-amd64.iso.torrent (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/raring/ubuntu-13.04-server-amd64.iso.torrent (Server)

32 Bit ISO
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/raring/ubuntu-13.04-desktop-i386.iso (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/raring/ubuntu-13.04-server-i386.iso  (Server)

32 Bit Torrent
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/raring/ubuntu-13.04-desktop-i386.iso.torrent (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/raring/ubuntu-13.04-server-i386.iso.torrent (Server)

Ubuntu 13.04 (Raring Ringtail) Installation
Installation Ubuntu 13.04

ubuntu1304splash

Choosing ubuntu installation

install-ubuntu

Preparing to install

prepare-install-ubuntu

Installation type

something-else-1

Choose your location

timezone-1

Choose keyboard layout selection

keyboard-layout

Choose Username & Password

mint_15_10

Installation Process

Install_001

Installation is completed

restart-machine-1

 

Ubuntu 12.04.4 LTS (Precise Pangolin) Installation


Ubuntu 12.04.4 LTS (Precise Pangolin)
Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise Pangolin) is Canonical’s sixteenth release of Ubuntu and its fourth Long Term Support (LTS) release, made available on schedule on 26 April 2012.It is named after the pangolin anteater.Previous LTS releases have been supported for three years for the desktop version and five years for the server version; this release will be supported for five years for both versions.

Ubuntu 12.04 is the first Ubuntu release shipped with IPv6 privacy extensions turned on by default. Ubuntu 11.10 already supported IPv6 on the desktop and in the installer (stateless address autoconfiguration SLAAC, stateless DHCPv6 and stateful DHCPv6).

Features
New privacy tool
Launchbar
Change to Unity Dash
Quicklists
Video Lens
Rhythmbox default
Trackpad support

Requirements
AMD64 or EM64T architecture (Athlon64, Opteron, EM64T Xeon,Core 2).
64 Bit Chips AMD Processor.
700 MHz processor (about Intel Celeron or better)
512 MiB RAM (system memory)
5 GB of hard-drive space (or USB stick, memory card or external drive but see LiveCD for an alternative approach)
VGA capable of 1024×768 screen resolution
Either a CD/DVD drive or a USB port for the installer media

64 Bit ISO
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/12.04.4/ubuntu-12.04.4-desktop-amd64.iso (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/12.04.4/ubuntu-12.04.4-server-amd64.iso  (Server)

64 Bit Torrent
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/precise/ubuntu-12.04.4-desktop-amd64.iso.torrent (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/precise/ubuntu-12.04.4-server-amd64.iso.torrent  (Server)

32 Bit ISO
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/12.04.4/ubuntu-12.04.4-desktop-i386.iso (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/12.04.4/ubuntu-12.04.4-server-i386.iso  (Server)

32 Bit Torrent
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/precise/ubuntu-12.04.4-desktop-i386.iso.torrent (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/precise/ubuntu-12.04.4-server-i386.iso.torrent  (Server)

Ubuntu 12.04.4 LTS (Precise Pangolin) Installation :
Installation Ubuntu 12.04.4

6013-ubuntu-12-1_0a6ca36f

Choosing ubuntu installation

install-ubuntu

Preparing to install

prepare-install-ubuntu

Installation type

something-else-1

Choose your location

timezone-1

Choose keyboard layout selection

keyboard-layout

Choose Username & Password

mint_15_10

Installation Process

VirtualBox1204

Installation is completed

restart-machine-1

 

Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal) Installation


Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal)
The naming of Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal) was announced on 17 August 2010 by Mark Shuttleworth.Ubuntu 11.04 Natty Narwhal was released on 28 April 2011.It is Canonical’s 14th release of Ubuntu.

Ubuntu 11.04 used the Unity user interface instead of GNOME Shell as default. The move to Unity was controversial as some GNOME developers feared it would fracture the community and marginalize GNOME Shell. The GNOME desktop environment is still available in Ubuntu 11.04 under the title Ubuntu Classic as a fallback to Unity.

Features
Refined Unity
GNOME 3
Ubuntu 11.0 is still on track to include Evolution
No LibreOffic
Chromium instead of Firefox
GNOME Display Manager to the lighter-weight LightDM

Requirments
AMD64 or EM64T architecture (Athlon64, Opteron, EM64T Xeon,Core 2).
64 Bit Chips AMD Processor.
700 MHz processor (about Intel Celeron or better)
512 MiB RAM (system memory)
5 GB of hard-drive space (or USB stick, memory card or external drive but see LiveCD for an alternative approach)
VGA capable of 1024×768 screen resolution
Either a CD/DVD drive or a USB port for the installer media

64 Bit ISO
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/natty/ubuntu-11.04-desktop-amd64.iso (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/natty/ubuntu-11.04-desktop-amd64.iso (Server)

64 Bit Torrent
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/natty/ubuntu-11.04-desktop-amd64.iso.torrent (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/natty/ubuntu-11.04-server-amd64.iso.torrent  (Server)

32 Bit ISO
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/natty/ubuntu-11.04-desktop-i386.iso (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/natty/ubuntu-11.04-server-i386.iso  (Server) 

32 Bit Torrent
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/natty/ubuntu-11.04-desktop-i386.iso.torrent (Desktop)
http://old-releases.ubuntu.com/releases/natty/ubuntu-11.04-server-i386.iso.torrent (Server)

Ubuntu 11.04 (Natty Narwhal) Installation
Choosing ubuntu installation

install-ubuntu

Preparing to install

prepare-install-ubuntu

Installation type

something-else-1

Choose your location

timezone-1

Choose keyboard layout selection

keyboard-layout

Choose username & password

mint_15_10

Installation Process

Ubuntu-11.04-Installation-012

Installation is completed

restart-machine-1